• Parmotrema perlatum, commonly known as black stone flower or kalpasi, is a species of lichen used as spice in India. The species occurs throughout the temperate Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Typically used in meat dishes like nahari (Paaya), Bombay biryani, Goat meat stews, it is also used in vegetarian dishes. It is one of the ingredients in East Indian Bottle Masala, used for cooking Meats, fish and vegetables.


  • In Ayurveda, the black stone flowers are used for the treatment of renal conditions mainly kidney stones.
  • They possess anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral and antimicrobial properties. They help reduce inflammation in the body and thus provide relief from pain.
  • It also helps treat skin problems with its anti-fungal and antimicrobial properties.
  • The black stone flowers with the help of their astringent properties promotes early healing of wounds.
  • The black stone flowers help to maintain normal body temperature, they improve digestion of food and help suppress respiratory disorders like cough and asthma.
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